Unlocking Word Meanings
Read the following words/expressions found in today’s article.
- eliminate / ɪˈlɪm əˌneɪt / (v) – to remove something
Wash your hands with soap to eliminate germs.
- inhibit / ɪnˈhɪb ɪt / (v) – to prevent or slow down something
Fear can inhibit employees from telling their managers about problems at work.
- stimulate / ˈstɪm yəˌleɪt / (v) – to activate or inspire something
The dietary supplement helps stimulate muscle growth.
- instantaneously / ˌɪn stənˈteɪ ni əs li / (adv) – happening right away
Thanks to technology, people on other sides of the world are now able to communicate instantaneously.
- exacerbate / ɪgˈzæs ərˌbeɪt / (v) – to make something more severe or worse
His allergies were exacerbated by the polluted air.
Read the text below.
Scientists from Duke University have pinpointed a small area of the brain responsible for eliminating the sensation of pain.
Previously, the scientists investigated which types of neurons are activated by general anesthesia, medication to keep someone from feeling pain during surgery. They found that general anesthesia activates a specific group of neurons in the central amygdala, a part of the brain known to house negative emotions and responses. They called those neurons CeAga neurons.
For the new study, the researchers subjected mice to mild pain to determine which brain regions are activated by it. The team successfully located the pain-activated parts of the brain. They also discovered that the CeAga neurons seemed to inhibit some of these activated parts, which led them to further investigate what happens when CeAga neurons are stimulated.
When the CeAga neurons were stimulated, the mice instantaneously stopped the self-caring behaviors they usually exhibit when experiencing discomfort, like face-wiping or paw-licking. In contrast, when the scientists decreased the activity of the CeAga neurons, the mice displayed behavior showing intense pain.
According to the scientists, the CeAga neurons in the amygdala work like a switch that could either suppress or exacerbate pain, and although the test was done on mice, one of the senior scientists believes that the human amygdala would produce the same response.
The team now wants to focus on looking for drugs that can safely stimulate and target only the CeAga neurons. They believe such drugs could potentially be used to develop new painkillers.
Enjoy a discussion with your tutor.
• Do you think the painkillers the scientists are planning to create should be made available without a prescription? Why or why not?
• Do you think pain medicine should be used for every minor pain (e.g. a mild headache) or only for extreme or chronic pain? Why?
• Do you think pain is necessary (e.g. to warn of danger)? Why or why not?
• What kind of pain would you not want to experience? Why?